Building inclusive applications that are accessible to everyone is very important. React Aria helps you build accessible components by providing many aspects of accessibility out of the box, including full screen reader and keyboard navigation support.
Accessibility is the ability for applications to be used by everyone, including those with disabilities. This encompasses all types of disabilities, including vision, auditory, motor, and cognitive disabilities.
React Aria addresses aspects of vision and motor disabilities through screen reader and keyboard navigation support. Since it does not provide any rendering or styling, additional consideration should be made in your design process for other types of disabilities. See the inclusive design page on the Spectrum website for more details.
Accessibility features also benefit users without disabilities. For example, power users may find it faster to interact with your application using a keyboard, rather than a mouse or touch screen. Especially for applications involving a large amount of data entry, good keyboard navigation support can dramatically increase user productivity.
React Aria implements accessibility support according to the WAI-ARIA
specification, published by the W3C. ARIA specifies semantics for many common UI controls so that assistive
technology like screen readers can understand what our DOM nodes represent. When we cannot use native HTML elements
with built-in semantics (e.g.
<select>) for styling reasons, or if there isn't a native element available,
ARIA is required to make presentational elements (e.g.
<div>) have semantic meaning. This allows screen readers and
other assistive technology to understand these elements and announce them properly to the user.
React Aria provides hooks for many ARIA patterns, which provide the semantics and behavior together. This makes building accessible components with custom styling much easier: just spread the props returned by the hooks onto the appropriate elements and you get accessibility and behavior pretty much for free. All you need to do is provide the styling.
React Aria includes most component semantics by default, but there is one important thing you must provide in your application: a textual label for each control. This gives a screen reader user context about the control they are interacting with.
Form inputs like text fields, checkboxes, and selects should usually have a visible label, and in this case, React Aria will automatically associate the visible label with the control so that assistive technology can describe it properly.
In case a visible label is not desired for some reason, or you're using a control that doesn't have a built-in label,
you must use the
aria-labelledby props to identify it to assistive technology. Most React Aria
hooks will display a console warning if you are missing both a visible label and an ARIA label.
React Aria implements keyboard support for all components, which allows users who cannot use a mouse or touch screen to navigate your app. It also allows power users to navigate your application more quickly, without lifting their hands from the keyboard. All keyboard behavior is implemented according to the WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices guidelines, and is designed to feel familiar to users of most commonly used desktop operating systems.
For more information about keyboard navigation and focus interactions, see the interactions overview.
On mobile touch screen devices, screen reader users navigate applications by moving a virtual cursor around the screen with gestures like swiping left and right rather than using a keyboard like on desktop platforms. The screen reader knows which elements are available to navigate to through the semantic information exposed by ARIA. These gestures and the virtual cursor take over the whole screen, and normal touch interactions for your application will not be available.
There are additional things to consider when supporting mobile screen readers. Since there's no hardware keyboard on most mobile devices, we cannot rely on keyboard interactions being available. And since the screen reader gestures take over the entire screen, we cannot rely on touch interactions. This means that all functionality must be accessible to a screen reader, including things that would typically be handled by keyboard interactions.
For example, to close a dialog or popover, mouse and touchscreen users typically click or tap outside. Keyboard users can press the Escape key. On desktop, this may be enough for screen reader users, but on mobile there is no keyboard available. So, we must ensure there is a way for screen reader users to access this functionality without a keyboard. React Aria allows you to handle this by placing a hidden button inside the dialog or popover that screen reader users can navigate to in order to close it.
All React Aria components are tested across a wide variety of devices, browsers, and screen readers.
- VoiceOver on macOS in Safari and Chrome
- JAWS on Windows in Firefox and Chrome
- NVDA on Windows in Firefox and Chrome
- VoiceOver on iOS
- TalkBack on Android in Chrome